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Gerard Genette Structuralism And Literary Criticism Summary |TOP|

The versatility of structuralism is such that a literary critic could make the same claim about a story of two friendly families ("Boy's Family + Girl's Family") that arrange a marriage between their children despite the fact that the children hate each other ("Boy - Girl") and then the children commit suicide to escape the arranged marriage; the justification is that the second story's structure is an 'inversion' of the first story's structure: the relationship between the values of love and the two pairs of parties involved have been reversed.

Gerard Genette Structuralism And Literary Criticism Summary

Structuralistic literary criticism argues that the "novelty value of a literary text" can lie only in new structure, rather than in the specifics of character development and voice in which that structure is expressed.

Genette is largely responsible for the reintroduction of a rhetorical vocabulary into literary criticism, for example such terms as trope and metonymy. Additionally his work on narrative, best known in English through the selection Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method, has been of importance.[3] His major work is the multi-part Figures series, of which Narrative Discourse is a section. His trilogy on textual transcendence, which has also been quite influential, is composed of Introduction à l'architexte (1979), Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree (1982), and Paratexts. Thresholds of Interpretation (1997).[4]

Day 2. \uf0d2 Reading 3.5c Evaluate the philosophical, political, religious, ethical, and social influences of the historical period that shaped the characters,\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Formalist criticism Pages\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n PLAGIARISM & COPYRIGHT\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n The Great Gatsby Re-creative Writing.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Allegory A narrative that unfolds an abstract idea by representing it as an action played out by abstract or symbolically named persons. The allegory\u2019s.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Introduction to Criticism\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Nancy Swisher Lecturer in ESL FLE 402 Fall 2016\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Critical Approaches to Literature\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Literary Analysis Writing Today Johnson-Sheehan, Paine Chapter 8\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Gospels Exegetical Workshop\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n READING SKILL Lectured by: Miss Yanna Queencer Telaumbanua, M.Pd.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Explication and Research\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n English Hub School networks A-level English Language\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Point of View.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n \u201cWhat is the Horror Genre?\u201d\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Literary Analysis Writing Today Johnson-Sheehan, Paine Chapter 8\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Reading Interests of Adults\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n \u201cMy Satirical Self\u201d Discuss \u201cMy Satirical Self\u201d with your table. What stood out to you? What is the author\u2019s main point? Discuss the article as a class.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Making Connections: guidance on non-exam assessment\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Auteurism In English, Auteur means \u2018Author\u2019 which is why Auterism is the theory that a film has an author, whether that be the Director, writer, producer,\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Contextual material at A Level\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Post- Structuralist.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Year 12 Unit Standard Read Poetic Written Text Closely \u2013 4 Credits\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n ENG 125 OUTLET Lessons in Excellence-\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Film Warm Up 5\/4 What TOOLS does a writer have when crafting a novel? How many people are involved in the crafting of novel? What TOOLS does a filmmaker.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Written Task II: Take Two\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Realistic Fiction :] Today\u2019s Learning Goals:\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n The reader is conditioned to the filter of narrator\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n STRUCTURALISM Humans need to structure the world, to make order out of disorder. Every human culture has some sort of language, social organization (government),\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n A guide to Literary Analysis\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Structuring a response\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Introduction to Feminist Theory\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Seven Different Lenses\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n LQ: Can I explain the factors which shape my identity?\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Writing a literary analysis essay\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Semiotics Structuralism.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n STRUCTURALISM Humans need to structure the world, to make order out of disorder. Every human culture has some sort of language, social organization (government),\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n STRUCTURALISM Humans need to structure the world, to make order out of disorder. Every human culture has some sort of language, social organization (government),\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Literature in English ASL\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Boot Camp AP Literature\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Critical Theories: Structuralism and Deconstruction\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Comment on Students\u2019 Stories, And A Guide to Literary Criticism\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Contextual material at A Level\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Critical Theories: Structuralism and Deconstruction\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n 8th Grade CST Prep.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Assessment Objectives\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n DESCRIPTIVE TEXT.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n INTERTEXTUALITY To learn about the concept of intertextuality and how it works.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Intertextuality.\n \n \n \n \n "," \n \n \n \n \n \n Gospels\/Acts Exegetical Workshop\n \n \n \n \n "]; Similar presentations

Structuralism could be defined as the project of giving literary criticism the theoretical rigour of a science of language: the attempt 'to rethink everything through once again in terms of linguistics' (Frederick Jameson, The Prison-House of Language, 4). Its historical origins are in Russian Formalist criticism (Viktor Shklovsky, Jan Mukarovsky, N.S. Troubetzkoy) and the linguistics of Saussure. In contrast with the psychological approach of the Anglo-American 'new critics' T.S. Eliot ('Notes Towards the Definition of Culture', 1948), I.A. Richards (Science and Poetry, 1926), W.K. Wimsatt (The Verbal Icon, 1958), Cleanth Brooks (The Well-Wrought Urn, 1949), who concentrated on the reader's response to a text, structuralist critics analysed the text as an object whose meaning can be interpreted in terms of its symbolic patterns.

Some landmark publications (titles are given in English, but dates are of first publication, in the original language) Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics,1916 This text (assembled from his students' lecture notes) represents the first comprehensively systematic study of language, analysing words as linguistic signs, which Saussure insisted were arbitrary, and could be understood only within a system. Rather than exploring the nature of mental concepts, the method defined ideas in terms of the language they are expressed in. Much of the power of the approach is derived from the method of analysing by division: the Saussurean dichotomies or binary oppositions. The most relevant to literary criticism are 1. language as abstract system (langue), or actual speech (parole) 2. the word or linguistic sign as sound or written shape (the signifier), or the concept which it denotes, (the signified) 3. a division of the mental process of constructing sentences, into selection (of a word) and combination (of words into sentences), and visualising these as two geometrical axes of language. The dichotomy most important to literary study is the second: the word as binary sign, signifier and signified. While Saussure himself was not a relativist, his method of enquiry led him to the relativistic declaration that 'in the language itself there are only differences, and no positive terms' (Course, p166). Later Structuralist and Poststructuralist theory may be seen as an elaboration of this attitude. Mikhail Bakhtin, Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics (1929), Rabelais and His World (1940) emphasised the use of language (parole) in literature, which he saw as fundamentally dialogic. He described 'polyphonic' works which realise the freedom of individual dramatic voices as 'carnival literature'. Bakhtin's approach was more dynamic than structural: 'Dialogic relations ... do not reside in the system of language.' Roman Jakobson, 'Linguistics and Poetics' (1958) extended the Structuralist analysis of language from form to function. He analysed language as a message in which any of six different functions may be foregrounded (a term derived from Mukarovsky's aktuelisace). He also identified Saussure's two axes of language (the third dichotomy noted above: the word-world relation and the relation between signifiers) with the tropes of metaphor and metonymy. This seemed to open poetic language to systematic linguistic analysis. Jakobson was second only to Saussure in his importance as a linguist, and was the power-house behind the application of linguistic theory to other disciplines. Claude Lévi-Strauss, Structural Anthropology (1958): analysed culture as a language, and kinship terms as models for other categories of binary opposition (most famously, the raw and the cooked). The oppositions always express a positive/negative or 'us/them' value system. The influence of structuralism in anthropology has been enduring, and particularly strong in Classical criticism. Roland Barthes, Mythologies (1957): the application of the anthropological method to cultural criticism (of the observer's society), and the further extension of signs beyond the linguistic, to semiotics, a general science of signs which had been proposed by Saussure (and independently by Charles Peirce). Narratology: the view that 'a text is like a clause' (M.A.K. Halliday), and narrative structure mirrors sentence structure. This approach derives from the work of Victor Propp (The Morphology of the Folktale, 1928, which analysed fictional characters in terms of plot function). Later proponents included: Gérard Genette (Narrative Discourse, 1972: the application of linguistic terms to the study of narrative and discourse), A.J. Greimas (Structural Semantics, 1966: actantial grammar, where characters have semantic roles, rather like nouns), and Tzvetan Todorov (The Poetics of Prose, 1971: figuration, the principle that patterns are observable in a text which appear to exist independently of the author). Propp's analysis identified seven spheres of action, corresponding to seven archetypal characters. This has given rise to speculation that there might be only a limited number of archetypal narratives. Jacques Lacan, 'The Insistence of the Letter in the Unconscious', (1957) proposed that 'the unconscious is structured like a language'. A psychological interpretation of Structuralist binary oppositions: Lacan's primary opposition is between the Subject and the Other (everything else, including the unconscious, language, and parents). This is a developmental stage, before which an infant is an non-differentiated 'hommelette', seeing the world simply as a mirror.


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